Advaita Philosophy, Yoga Philosophy

Realistic vs. Idealistic Metaphysics – Page 4

P.J.Mazumdar


Brihadaranyaka Upanishad:

3.7.4:

He who inhabits the earth, but is within it, whom the earth does not know, whose body is the earth, and who controls the earth from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal Self.

Here, it is said, that which supports the Earth is the same as that which supports us, that is, our ‘Internal Ruler’, our base which is Brahman, is also the base of the Earth.

In the subsequent Sutras, the same formula defines all other entities as being supported by the same ‘Internal Ruler’.

3.7.5:

He who inhabits water, but is within it, whom water does not know, whose body is water, and who controls water from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal Self.

Similarly, the other sutras go on to define Fire, Sky or Space, Air, Heaven, Sun, Quarters or directions, Moon and Stars, Ether, Darkness, Light, ‘All beings’, that is, all living creatures, nose, organ of speech, eye, ear, mind, skin, intellect and organ of generation.

Thus these sutras define the existence of all other things in the universe and says their basis of existence is the same as the basis of our own existence, ie, Brahman.

Thus this is another illustration of the Realistic Metaphysics, since existence of all other objects is considered to be as fundamental as our own existence, the subject.

Chandogya Upanishad

1.7.5:

...The appearance of this one (that is in the eye) is the same as of that one (in the sun. those which are the finger joints of that one, they are of this one. The name of this one is the same as that one.

In this sutra as before, it is defined that the base of both the sun (the object) and the eye (the subject) is the same, ie, Brahman. So again this means that both the object and the subject are of equal value.

3.13.7:

Now that light which shines beyond this heaven, beyond the whole creation, beyond everything, in the highest worlds which are unsurpassingly good, it is certainly this which is the light within a person.

Here again, the whole creation and the subject are ultimately of the same reality, having he same basis.

3.14.1:

All this is Brahman, this is born from, dissolves in, and exists in That...

Again, reaffirming the existence of the entire universe.

Isa Upanishad

16:

...I am that very Person that is yonder in the Sun.

Another sutra affirming the reality of both the sun and the I, the object and the subject.

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